These institutions are allowed the power to enforce legal norms both towards or for member states and citizens in a fashion which isn’t possible through public international law. [newline]As the European Court of Justice famous in its 1963 Van Gend en Loos decision, European Union law constitutes “a new authorized order of worldwide law” for the mutual social and economic advantage of the member states. Most nations have techniques of attraction courts, with an apex courtroom as the final word judicial authority. In the United States, this authority is the Supreme Court; in Australia, the High Court; within the UK, the Supreme Court; in Germany, the Bundesverfassungsgericht; and in France, the Cour de Cassation. For most European international locations the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg can overrule nationwide law, when EU law is relevant.
- John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Government, and Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit